Latin American Studies (LAMS)

Latin American Studies was established at Bucknell University in 1975 as an interdisciplinary program of area studies in the humanities and social sciences. The program comprises 21 faculty from 11 departments and programs, whose research and teaching focuses on the 43 nations and territories in the western hemisphere south of the continental United States, as well as Latin Americans within the United States, our nation’s largest minority.

Latin American Studies provides a framework of study in the humanities and social sciences that fosters an integrated approach to understanding Latin American cultures and peoples as well as the important role of Latin America in our 21st-century global system.

Within this framework, students examine the rich chronicle of traditions and historical experience and are encouraged to pose questions about a wide range of essential issues from topics related to race, ethnicity, class, culture, religion, and gender, to economic and social struggles, human rights, literature and art, environment, resource management, globalization, regional integration, militarization, democracy, social movements, and theories and approaches to development and sustainability. Courses in Latin American Studies challenge students to formulate international and cross-cultural ethical and moral standards, and to structure comparative and alternative perspectives to the study of Latin American nations and societies as well as to their own cultures and countries.

These various topics and objectives, combined with expanded understanding of international issues, increased appreciation for inter-American and global relations, and extensive study of the Spanish language, bring depth and sophistication to the Latin American Studies major and minor.

  • Both a major and a minor are offered in Latin American Studies.
  • Majors and minors are expected to become proficient in the Spanish language.
  • Majors in Latin American Studies are strongly encouraged to plan a semester, a year, or a summer of study in Latin America. Minors in Latin American Studies are encouraged to spend a semester or a summer of study in Latin America.
  • Students in the Latin American Studies program are encouraged to participate in one or more service-learning experiences in Latin America or involving Latin Americans in the United States.

Intellectual Competencies of Writing, Formal Speaking and Presentation, and Information Literacy

All students enrolled in courses with the LAMS prefix are required to complete various instructor-directed individual and collaborative formal speaking, presentation, and writing projects that will be evaluated as part of the final course grade. Additionally, as part of the course grade, students enrolled in courses with the LAMS prefix are required to develop skills in information literacy relative to the field of Latin American Studies, including varied approaches to critical reading, analysis, and evaluation of information sources as well as competency in the application of comparative methodologies. Latin American Studies majors are required to take two courses with the LAMS prefix.

Study Abroad in Latin America

Students majoring in Latin American Studies are strongly encouraged to plan a semester, a year, or a summer of study in Latin America. Latin American Studies minors are encouraged to spend a semester or a summer of study in Latin America. When students elect the Latin American Studies major, they should consult with their adviser, with the director of Latin American Studies, and with the Office of Global & Off-campus Education (OGOE), regarding suitable foreign study opportunities. Exceptions to the Bucknell-approved study abroad programs must be approved by the director of Latin American Studies and the Office of Global & Off-campus Education (OGOE).

Substitution of Courses taken during study in Latin America

Students who major in Latin American Studies may substitute certain courses taken during study abroad in Latin America for up to four of the course requirements listed in Lists A, B, C, and D (see Major tab), pending approval of their Latin American Studies adviser and the director of Latin American Studies. Minors in Latin American Studies may substitute certain courses taken during study abroad in Latin America for up to three of the course requirements listed for the LAMS minor, pending approval of their Latin American Studies adviser and the director of Latin American Studies.

Service-learning Experience

Majors and minors are encouraged to participate in one or more service-learning experiences in Latin America or involving Latin Americans in the United States.

Student-faculty Research

Majors and minors are encouraged to approach individual members of the LAMS faculty to seek opportunities to participate in faculty-initiated research in Latin America or involving Latin Americans in the United States.

Interdisciplinary Honors in Latin American Studies

The Latin American Studies program strongly encourages qualified majors to consider working for interdisciplinary honors in Latin American Studies. During their junior year, such students should consult with one or more members of the Latin American Studies faculty to begin defining a research topic and writing a proposal to be submitted to the Honors Council by mid-October of the senior year. Normally, a student for honors in Latin American Studies will enroll for:

Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America 1

Further information about the honors program can be obtained from the academic adviser, from the director of Latin American Studies, or from the Honors Council.

Major Requirements

A minimum of eight courses selected according to the core requirements listed below, including a Latin American Studies Culminating Experience and exhibited proficiency in the Spanish language, as described below.

List A

Two Latin American Studies courses selected from the following list:

LAMS 150Latin America: An Introduction1
LAMS 202Ecopolitics in Latin America1
LAMS 228Violence and Human Rights in Latin America1
LAMS 250Latin America: Challenges for the 21st Century1
LAMS 295Modern Latin America1
LAMS 297Colonial Latin America1
LAMS 319Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America1

List B

Two social science courses on Latin American topics from different departments or programs selected from the following list:

ECON 253Gender and Migration1
ECON 319Economic History of Women in the United States 11
ENST 325Nature, Wealth and Power1
GEOG 236Third World Development1
GEOG 237Grassroots Development: Nicaragua1
HIST 282Modern Latin America1
IREL 200International Relations: Topics/Issues 11
IREL 250Theories of International Relations1
IREL 252Political Economy of Global Resources1
IREL 270Global Governance of Climate Change1
IREL 275Global Governance1
IREL 285The International Relations of Latin America in the 21st Century1
IREL 350Globalization1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Global Restructuring)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Making Globalization Work)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Economic Transition)1
IREL 410BRICS on the Global Stage1
POLS 211Third World Politics1
POLS 219Latin American Politics1
POLS 352Politics of Economic Development1
SOCI 213Race in Historical and Comparative Perspectives 11
SOCI 245Remaking America: Latin American Immigration1
SOCI 280Twentieth-century Afro-Caribbean and African-American Thought1
SOCI 290Caribbean Society Music and Ritual1
SOCI 310The Sociology of Developing Societies1
SOCI 312Globalization and Conflict1
SOCI 354Development, Dictators and Diaspora1

List C

Two humanities courses on Latin American topics from different departments or programs selected from the following list. One course will be a course on Latin American history from the history department, and the other will be a course from the Spanish department, taught in the Spanish language, at the SPAN 222 Introduction to Latin American Literature level or above.

AFST 222Caribbean Literature1
ENLS 213Special Topics in American Literature ("Beyond Rum and Revolution")1
HIST 282Modern Latin America1
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 11
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 11
SPAN 222Introduction to Latin American Literature1
SPAN 264Hispanic Topics 11
SPAN 280Latin American Cultural Traditions1
SPAN 285Latino Literature in the U.S.1
SPAN 295Topics in Spanish 11
SPAN 323Latin American Short Story1
SPAN 346Utopia/Dystopia in Urban Latin America1
SPAN 348Gender in 20th-century Latin American Literature1
SPAN 360Literature and Film of the Hispanic World 11
SPAN 361Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 362Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 364Topics in Spanish Civilization 11
SPAN 365Topics in Latin American Civilization1
SPAN 366Mexican Revolution: Literature and Art1

List D

Two electives selected from the following list of courses on Latin American topics, chosen with approval of the student’s adviser in Latin American Studies:

AFST 222Caribbean Literature1
ECON 253Gender and Migration1
ECON 319Economic History of Women in the United States 11
ENLS 213Special Topics in American Literature ("Beyond Rum and Revolution")1
ENST 325Nature, Wealth and Power1
GEOG 236Third World Development1
GEOG 237Grassroots Development: Nicaragua1
HIST 282Modern Latin America1
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 (Latin America: 1945-1989) 11
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 (Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Policy: 1940s to Present) 11
IREL 200International Relations: Topics/Issues 11
IREL 250Theories of International Relations1
IREL 252Political Economy of Global Resources1
IREL 270Global Governance of Climate Change1
IREL 275Global Governance1
IREL 285The International Relations of Latin America in the 21st Century1
IREL 350Globalization1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Global Restructuring)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Making Globalization Work)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Economic Transition)1
IREL 410BRICS on the Global Stage1
LAMS 150Latin America: An Introduction1
LAMS 202Ecopolitics in Latin America1
LAMS 228Violence and Human Rights in Latin America1
LAMS 250Latin America: Challenges for the 21st Century1
LAMS 288Global Cuisines, Local Contexts: Commensality and Conflict1
LAMS 295Modern Latin America1
LAMS 297Colonial Latin America1
LAMS 319Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America1
POLS 211Third World Politics1
POLS 219Latin American Politics1
POLS 352Politics of Economic Development1
SOCI 213Race in Historical and Comparative Perspectives 11
SOCI 245Remaking America: Latin American Immigration1
SOCI 280Twentieth-century Afro-Caribbean and African-American Thought1
SOCI 290Caribbean Society Music and Ritual1
SOCI 310The Sociology of Developing Societies1
SOCI 312Globalization and Conflict1
SOCI 354Development, Dictators and Diaspora1
SPAN 222Introduction to Latin American Literature1
SPAN 264Hispanic Topics 11
SPAN 280Latin American Cultural Traditions1
SPAN 285Latino Literature in the U.S.1
SPAN 295Topics in Spanish 11
SPAN 323Latin American Short Story1
SPAN 346Utopia/Dystopia in Urban Latin America1
SPAN 348Gender in 20th-century Latin American Literature1
SPAN 360Literature and Film of the Hispanic World 11
SPAN 361Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 362Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 365Topics in Latin American Civilization1
SPAN 366Mexican Revolution: Literature and Art1
UNIV 200Integrated Perspectives Course ("Memories of Neoliberalism in Latin America")1

Additional Courses

Additional courses with substantial Latin American content that do not appear in one of the lists above may be elected from the approved courses offered each semester under Latin American Studies (LAMS) in the current Class Schedule.

Proficiency & Competency in the Spanish Language

Latin American Studies majors are required to demonstrate proficiency in the Spanish language by successfully completing, at least, one course taught in the Spanish language at the SPAN 222 Introduction to Latin American Literature level or above.

Prerequisites Courses

Of the courses in Lists A, B, C, and D, the following courses have prerequisites or require permission from the instructor:

ECON 253Gender and Migration1
Prerequiste: ECON 103
Economic History of Women in the United States
Prerequisites: ECON 256 or ECON 257 or ECON 2581
Theories of International Relations
Prerequisite: POLS 1701
Political Economy of Global Resources
Prerequisite: ECON 1031
Globalization
IREL majors; ECON 227 and IREL 250 preferred
Seminar: Topics in International Relations
Prerequisite: second-semester junior or senior status, or permission
The Sociology of Developing Societies
Prerequisite: any sociology or anthropology course1

Culminating Experience

During the senior year (or second semester of the junior year with the approval of the student’s Latin American Studies adviser), majors in Latin American Studies are required to complete one Culminating Experience course. Courses fulfilling this requirement include 300-level or higher courses with a LAMS designation or 300-level or higher courses on a Latin American topic taught by any faculty member affiliated with Latin American Studies. Within the Culminating Experience course, Latin American Studies majors will undertake a paper or a project that focuses on a Latin American topic and provides evidence of:

  1. Application of interdisciplinary perspectives from the social sciences and humanities,
  2. Grounding in specific theories and approaches in the field of Latin American Studies, and
  3. Knowledge of primary informational and data base resources in the study of Latin America, thereby ensuring that majors complete coherent integrative work in the discipline of Latin American Studies. With the permission of the Latin American Studies adviser, a student who is taking an independent study or pursuing honors in Latin American Studies, and who is enrolled in LAMS 319 Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America, may satisfy the Culminating Experience requirement through the successful completion of an independent study project or an honors thesis.

Minor in Latin American Studies

Core Requirements

Students complete the interdisciplinary minor in Latin American Studies when they successfully complete a minimum of five courses selected according to the following criteria and have demonstrated competency in the Spanish language at the SPAN 207 Toward Advanced Spanish level or above:

One Latin American Studies course selected from the following list:

LAMS 150Latin America: An Introduction1
LAMS 202Ecopolitics in Latin America1
LAMS 228Violence and Human Rights in Latin America1
LAMS 250Latin America: Challenges for the 21st Century1
LAMS 295Modern Latin America1
LAMS 297Colonial Latin America1
LAMS 319Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America1

List B

One social science course on Latin American topics from different departments or programs selected from the following list:

ECON 253Gender and Migration1
ECON 319Economic History of Women in the United States 11
ENST 325Nature, Wealth and Power1
GEOG 236Third World Development1
GEOG 237Grassroots Development: Nicaragua1
IREL 200International Relations: Topics/Issues 11
IREL 250Theories of International Relations1
IREL 252Political Economy of Global Resources1
IREL 270Global Governance of Climate Change1
IREL 275Global Governance1
IREL 285The International Relations of Latin America in the 21st Century1
IREL 350Globalization1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Global Restructuring)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Making Globalization Work)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Economic Transition)1
IREL 410BRICS on the Global Stage1
POLS 211Third World Politics1
POLS 219Latin American Politics1
POLS 352Politics of Economic Development1
SOCI 213Race in Historical and Comparative Perspectives 11
SOCI 245Remaking America: Latin American Immigration1
SOCI 280Twentieth-century Afro-Caribbean and African-American Thought1
SOCI 290Caribbean Society Music and Ritual1
SOCI 310The Sociology of Developing Societies1
SOCI 312Globalization and Conflict1
SOCI 354Development, Dictators and Diaspora1

List C

One humanities course on Latin American topics from different departments or programs selected from the following list. One course will be a course on Latin American history from the history department, and the other will be a course from the Spanish department, taught in the Spanish language, at the SPAN 222 Introduction to Latin American Literature level or above.

AFST 222Caribbean Literature1
ENLS 213Special Topics in American Literature ("Beyond Rum and Revolution")1
HIST 282Modern Latin America1
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 (Latin America: 1945-1989) 11
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 (Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Policy: 1940s to Present) 11
SPAN 222Introduction to Latin American Literature1
SPAN 264Hispanic Topics 11
SPAN 280Latin American Cultural Traditions1
SPAN 285Latino Literature in the U.S.1
SPAN 295Topics in Spanish 11
SPAN 323Latin American Short Story1
SPAN 346Utopia/Dystopia in Urban Latin America1
SPAN 348Gender in 20th-century Latin American Literature1
SPAN 360Literature and Film of the Hispanic World 11
SPAN 361Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 362Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 365Topics in Latin American Civilization1
SPAN 366Mexican Revolution: Literature and Art1

List D

Two electives selected from the following list of courses on Latin American topics chosen with approval from the student’s adviser in Latin American Studies:

AFST 222Caribbean Literature1
ECON 253Gender and Migration1
ECON 319Economic History of Women in the United States 11
ENLS 213Special Topics in American Literature ("Beyond Rum and Revolution")1
ENST 325Nature, Wealth and Power1
GEOG 236Third World Development1
GEOG 237Grassroots Development: Nicaragua1
HIST 282Modern Latin America1
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 (Latin America: 1945-1989) 11
HIST 311U.S. History since 1865 (Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Policy: 1940s to Present) 11
IREL 200International Relations: Topics/Issues 11
IREL 250Theories of International Relations1
IREL 252Political Economy of Global Resources1
IREL 270Global Governance of Climate Change1
IREL 275Global Governance1
IREL 285The International Relations of Latin America in the 21st Century1
IREL 350Globalization1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Global Restructuring)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Making Globalization Work)1
IREL 400Seminar: Topics in International Relations (Economic Transition)1
IREL 410BRICS on the Global Stage1
LAMS 150Latin America: An Introduction1
LAMS 202Ecopolitics in Latin America1
LAMS 228Violence and Human Rights in Latin America1
LAMS 250Latin America: Challenges for the 21st Century1
LAMS 288Global Cuisines, Local Contexts: Commensality and Conflict1
LAMS 295Modern Latin America1
LAMS 297Colonial Latin America1
LAMS 319Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America1
POLS 211Third World Politics1
POLS 219Latin American Politics1
POLS 352Politics of Economic Development1
SOCI 213Race in Historical and Comparative Perspectives 11
SOCI 245Remaking America: Latin American Immigration1
SOCI 280Twentieth-century Afro-Caribbean and African-American Thought1
SOCI 290Caribbean Society Music and Ritual1
SOCI 310The Sociology of Developing Societies1
SOCI 312Globalization and Conflict1
SOCI 354Development, Dictators and Diaspora1
SPAN 222Introduction to Latin American Literature1
SPAN 264Hispanic Topics 11
SPAN 280Latin American Cultural Traditions1
SPAN 285Latino Literature in the U.S.1
SPAN 295Topics in Spanish 11
SPAN 323Latin American Short Story1
SPAN 346Utopia/Dystopia in Urban Latin America1
SPAN 348Gender in 20th-century Latin American Literature1
SPAN 360Literature and Film of the Hispanic World 11
SPAN 361Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 362Topics in Hispanic Literature 11
SPAN 365Topics in Latin American Civilization1
SPAN 366Mexican Revolution: Literature and Art1
UNIV 200Integrated Perspectives Course ("Memories of Neoliberalism in Latin America")1

Additional Courses

Additional courses with substantial Latin American content that do not appear in one of the lists above may be elected from the approved courses offered each semester under Latin American Studies (LAMS) in the current Class Schedule.

Proficiency & Competency in the Spanish Language

Competency in the fundamental skills of the Spanish language equivalent to the completion of SPAN 207 Toward Advanced Spanish is expected of Latin American Studies minors.

Prerequisites Courses

Of the courses in Lists A, B, C, and D, the following courses have prerequisites and require permission from the instructor:

Gender and Migration
Prerequisite ECON 1031
Economic History of Women in the United States
Prerequisites: ECON 256 or ECON 257 or ECON 2581
Theories of International Relations
Prerequisite: POLS 1701
Political Economy of Global Resources
Globalization
Prerequisite: IREL majors; ECON 227 and IREL 250 preferred
Seminar: Topics in International Relations
Prerequisite: second-semester junior or senior status, or permission1
The Sociology of Developing Societies
Prerequisite: any sociology or anthropology course1

Program Goals

  • To offer a broad, interdisciplinary Bachelor of Arts (BA) major in Latin American Studies comprising courses from the Social Sciences and the Humanities. 
  • To design a BA program steeped in cross-disciplinary learning in the liberal arts tradition that provides students with critical perspectives relevant to a range of globally oriented career paths including law, policy, education, social work, and administration, among others.
  • To provide international living and learning opportunities for students in Latin America via study abroad, non-traditional service-learning programs, internships, and language programs, among others.
  • To contribute to the level of engagement with the region of Latin America among students not associated with the Latin American Studies program (i.e. non-majors and non-minors).

Courses

LAMS 150. Latin America: An Introduction. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Introduction to the history, cultures, and societies of Latin America.

LAMS 201. Modernization and Social Revolution in Latin America. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
This class examines how technological and political processes combine focusing on the Latin American region. Crosslisted as IREL 201.

LAMS 202. Ecopolitics in Latin America. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
This course examines climate policy debates and recent shifts in global environmentalism, with a focus on a wide range of Latin American territories. Crosslisted as ENST 209 and ANTH 202.

LAMS 222. Indigenous Americas: Environment, Development, and Change. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3; Repeatable
With a focus on the region we now call Latin America, this course examines historical struggles over indigenous identity and land, and contemporary alternatives to colonial development. Crosslisted as IREL 222.

LAMS 224. Becoming Latinos. 1 Credit.

Offered Occasionally; Lecture hours:3
Explores history, racial/ethnic identities and communities, and the social, political, economic and cultural dimensions of the Latin American (im)migration experience in the United States.

LAMS 228. Violence and Human Rights in Latin America. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
This course will unpack the historical, political, and cultural roots of different forms of violence and conflict in the region through in-depth country case studies. We will also analyze diverse organizational, institutional and legal strategies for addressing violence, with a particular focus on the Inter-American Human Rights system. Crosslisted as SOCI 228.

LAMS 245. Remaking America: Latin American Immigration. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
The processes and impacts of Latin American immigration on the U.S. and countries of origin. Special emphasis on how the immigration experience varies by ethnicity, location, and gender. Crosslisted as SOCI 245.

LAMS 250. Latin America: Challenges for the 21st Century. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Perspectives on the challenges facing Latin American peoples and nations in the 21st century. Crosslisted as ANTH 248.

LAMS 273. Latin American Economic Development. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
The course deals with historic and contemporary economic problems, starting from colonial times and reaching the present integration into world economy. Crosslisted as ECON 273.

LAMS 286. Latino Literature in the U.S.. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
This course focuses on issues of cultural identity within the literary and some film production of Latinos/as living in the U.S. Crosslisted as SPAN 285.

LAMS 288. Global Cuisines, Local Contexts: Commensality and Conflict. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternating Spring Semester; Lecture hours:3
We will consider how food both brings people together, and creates divisions between them, through an in-depth examination of the cases of French and Andean (South American) cuisines. Cuisine will be considered through aesthetic, cultural, and economic lenses as a mirror into larger social worlds. Crosslisted as ANTH 288 and UNIV 288 and FREN 288.

LAMS 292. Service-Learning in Nicaragua. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
This course focuses on the connections between Nicaraguan development processes and Brigade-based service-learning. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Crosslisted as IREL 292 and GEOG 292.

LAMS 295. Modern Latin America. 1 Credit.

Lecture hours:3
This course traces and analyzes major developments in Latin American politics, society and culture from 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as HIST 282.

LAMS 296. Topics in Latin American Studies. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Topics in Latin American history: pre-Columbian to the present.

LAMS 297. Colonial Latin America. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Latin American history from pre-Columbian cultures to wars for independence.

LAMS 319. Interdisciplinary Independent Study on Latin America. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3; Repeatable
Individual research with a member of the Latin American Studies faculty. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Faculty

Interim Director: Clare Sammells

Assistant Professor: David M. Rojas

Affiliated Faculty: Paul Barba (History), Raphael Dalleo (English), Elizabeth Durden (Sociology), Elisabeth Guerrero (Spanish), R. Douglas Hecock (Political Science), Nicholas Jones (Spanish), Linden F. Lewis (Sociology), Obed Omar Lira (Spanish), Eddy A. López (Art & Art History), Elena Machado Sáez (English), Jason Aaron McCloskey (Spanish), Jasmine A. Mena (Psychology), Ana M. Patiño (Spanish), Clare Sammells (Anthropology), P. Khalil Saucier (Africana Studies), Hiram L. Smith (Spanish), Paul H. Susman (Geography), Matías Vernengo (Economics), Peter R. Wilshusen (Environmental Studies)

Visiting Assistant Professor: Pamela Neumann

Coordinating Committee: Fernando Blanco (Spanish), Elizabeth Durden (Sociology), Elisabeth Guerrero (Spanish), R. Douglas Hecock (Political Science), Eddy A. López (Art & Art History), David M. Rojas (Latin American Studies), Clare Sammells (Anthropology), Paul H. Susman (Geography), Matías Vernengo (Economics), Peter R. Wilshusen (Environmental Studies)