Mathematics (MATH)

Mathematics has long been the basic language of the natural sciences, and has been studied for its own sake since ancient times. An understanding of the basics of calculus, statistics, and linear algebra has become a requirement for proficiency in many of the social sciences. The study of mathematics has its own rewards because accomplishment in the subject, even at a relatively elementary level, requires and promotes clarity of both thought and expression. For many, the study of mathematics offers entrance into an exciting world of challenges where beauty and utility coexist in balanced harmony.

A major in mathematics may be seen as the first step toward obtaining a graduate degree in one of the mathematical sciences, or it may constitute preparation for a professional degree program in a field such as education, medicine, law, or business. It also opens the door to a whole range of employment opportunities, as the analytical skills that a student develops in pursuing a major in mathematics are greatly valued by potential employers. There are, for example, excellent career prospects in actuarial work and in the rapidly growing areas of biomathematics and biostatistics (interpreting results of clinical trials), modeling (in industry, government, and finance) and cryptology (in banking, television, the Internet, and elsewhere).

Secondary Teacher Certification

Prospective secondary school teachers (grades 7 – 12) must complete one of the three majors within the department. This certification requires specific mathematics and education courses. Students seeking teacher certification should confer as early as possible with the mathematics and education departments to devise a program of study, which normally will include all requirements for certification in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Departmental Honors

Students who complete departmental honors normally have a grade point average of 3.5 both in their mathematics courses and overall. Students in the Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics major or Bachelor of Science in Mathematics major have usually completed MATH 308 Real Analysis I and MATH 320 Abstract Algebra I by the end of their junior year. Students in the Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences major have usually completed MATH 308 Real Analysis I by the end of their junior year. To be accepted into the Honors Program, a student must submit an honors proposal for approval by the adviser, the department chairperson, and the Honors Council. The student must then complete an honors thesis under the adviser’s direction, must have completed a total of at least three mathematics courses at the 300- or 400-level by the end of their junior year, and satisfy all other requirements as put forth by the University Honors Council. Such students usually complete at least two half-credit semesters of independent study in mathematics (MATH 491 Reading and Research).

Mathematics Majors

The Mathematics Department offers three majors. Students may earn a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics, a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics, or a Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences. Students in each major complete an introductory year of calculus either by taking MATH 201 Calculus I or MATH 202 Calculus II during their first year, or by achieving a high score on the Advanced Placement Test of the College Entrance Examination Board.

The College Core Curriculum disciplinary depth requirements for Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts majors are satisfied as follows:

  • writing within the major in MATH 280 Logic, Sets, and Proofs, MATH 308 Real Analysis I, and MATH 320 Abstract Algebra I (all W2 courses);
  • formal presentation in MATH 280 Logic, Sets, and Proofs and
  • information literacy in MATH 308 Real Analysis I and MATH 320 Abstract Algebra I.

The requirement for a Culminating Experience within the major may be satisfied in any of the following ways:(1) taking a full credit 400-level mathematics course; or (2) completing an honors thesis, senior thesis, or other research project in the senior year that involves mathematics or statistics; or (3) completing student teaching for secondary certification. The Culminating Experience cannot double-count as one of the mathematics electives required in the major, with the one exception that students earning a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics may count a 400-level mathematics course both as their mathematics-related course and as the Culminating Experience.

The choice of degree program depends largely upon the student’s mathematical objectives and interests in fields other than mathematics. Students with strong interests outside mathematics have options including the Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences program, the Bachelor of Science in Interdisciplinary Studies in Economics and Mathematics program, and the Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics program. Students with a strong interest in a career in mathematics or science – and in particular, students planning to continue on to Ph.D. programs in the mathematical sciences – are strongly advised to take courses beyond the minimum requirements for the major. Since a maximum of 12 courses in any one department may be counted toward any Bachelor of Arts degree, such students are advised to choose one of the Bachelor of Science majors.

Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics

The Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics major consists of eight mathematics courses beyond the introductory year of calculus, plus one additional course in a related field and a Culminating Experience.

Of the eight mathematics courses beyond the introductory year of calculus, five are specified:

Program Requirements
MATH 211Calculus III1
MATH 245Linear Algebra1
MATH 280Logic, Sets, and Proofs1
MATH 308Real Analysis I1
MATH 320Abstract Algebra I1
Electives
Three electives at the 300 or 400-level 13
Related Field Course
Select one of the following:1
Fourth Mathematics course at the 300 or 400-level (including MATH 417)
The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools
Differential Equations
Statistics I
Computer science or science course 2
1

not including MATH 417 Topics in Mathematics and Statistics

2

Additional full-credit computer science or science course (beyond those required for all liberal arts students) in which college-level mathematics or statistics plays a major role. Included among the courses are nearly all courses in computer science or physics at or above the 200 level and an appropriate course from the humanities, social sciences, or engineering in which mathematics plays a significant role at a reasonable level of sophistication.

The mathematics department chair shall make the determination of whether or not a particular course outside the mathematics department may count as the course in a related field.

A single 400-level course may be used to satisfy both the Culminating Experience requirement and the related course requirement.

Students with a special interest in pure mathematics or statistics can earn formal concentration in these areas by completing an appropriate suite of 300- and 400-level courses, as described below.

Pure Mathematics Concentration

MATH 345Advanced Linear Algebra1
MATH 409Real Analysis II1
MATH 446Abstract Algebra II1
Select two of the following:2
Theory of Numbers
Topology
Complex Analysis

Statistics Concentration

MATH 303Probability1
MATH 305Statistical Modeling1
MATH 307Statistical Design of Scientific Studies1
MATH 404Mathematical Statistics1
MATH 345Advanced Linear Algebra1
or MATH 409 Real Analysis II

Students majoring in mathematics with a special interest in computer science are encouraged to consider minoring in computer science.

Bachelor of Science in Mathematics

The Bachelor of Science in Mathematics major requires 10 mathematics courses beyond the introductory year of calculus and a Culminating Experience.

Six of the 10 mathematics courses are specified:

Program Requirements
MATH 211Calculus III1
MATH 212Differential Equations1
MATH 245Linear Algebra1
MATH 280Logic, Sets, and Proofs1
MATH 308Real Analysis I1
MATH 320Abstract Algebra I1
Electives
Four mathematics electives at the 300 or 400-level 34
Select one of the following:2
Classical and Modern Physics
   and Classical and Modern Physics
Classical and Modern Physics
   and Classical and Modern Physics
Two additional laboratory science courses 42
3

not including MATH 417 Topics in Mathematics and Statistics

4

The additional laboratory science courses may be chosen from any discipline in the natural sciences or from computer science. Any course in physics beyond PHYS 212 Classical and Modern Physics, and any laboratory course in computer science at the level of CSCI 203 Introduction to Computer Science I or beyond, may be chosen.

Students with a special interest in pure mathematics or statistics can earn formal concentration in these areas by completing an appropriate suite of 300 and 400-level courses, as described below. In particular, those intending to pursue graduate study in mathematics or statistics should plan to complete the relevant concentration.

Pure Mathematics Concentration

MATH 345Advanced Linear Algebra1
MATH 409Real Analysis II1
MATH 446Abstract Algebra II1
Select two of the following:2
Theory of Numbers
Topology
Complex Analysis

Statistics Concentration

MATH 303Probability1
MATH 305Statistical Modeling1
MATH 307Statistical Design of Scientific Studies1
MATH 404Mathematical Statistics1
MATH 345Advanced Linear Algebra1
or MATH 409 Real Analysis II

The recommended sequence for the Bachelor of Science in Mathematics major is as follows:

First Year
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
MATH 2011MATH 2021
PHYS 2111PHYS 2121
 2 2
Sophomore
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
MATH 2111MATH 2121
MATH 2451MATH 2801
Laboratory science1Laboratory science1
 3 3
Junior
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
MATH 308 or 3201MATH 308 or 3201
Elective in mathematics1Elective in mathematics1
 2 2
Senior
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
Elective in mathematics1Elective in mathematics1
 Culminating Experience1
 1 2
Total Credits: 17

Students majoring in mathematics with a special interest in computer science are encouraged to consider minoring in computer science.

Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences

The Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences major (with a concentration in statistics or applied mathematics) requires 10 mathematics courses beyond the introductory year of calculus, a computing course, five courses in a different program, and a Culminating Experience. More specifically, there are six required core mathematics courses consisting of:

Program Requirements
MATH 211Calculus III1
MATH 216Statistics I1
MATH 245Linear Algebra1
MATH 280Logic, Sets, and Proofs1
MATH 303Probability1
MATH 308Real Analysis I1
Courses in Area of Concentration
Four concentration related courses in statistics or applied mathematics4

Further, the major requires a computing course and significant coursework in a declared outside department or program as described below. While the Culminating Experience may be met in any of the ways specified above, students earning a Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences are strongly encouraged to consider the option of a thesis or research experience integrating the outside coursework.

Statistics Concentration

MATH 217Statistics II1
Select three of the following: 3
Statistical Modeling 5
Statistical Design of Scientific Studies 5
Advanced Linear Algebra
Mathematical Statistics 5
Real Analysis II
5

At least two courses must be selected from these courses.

Appropriate courses could be additional electives counting toward the concentration if so determined by the academic adviser in consultation with the mathematics department chair.

Applied Mathematics Concentration

MATH 212Differential Equations1
Select three of the following:3
Numerical Analysis
Advanced Linear Algebra
Methods in Applied Mathematics
Topics in Operations Research
Complex Analysis
Real Analysis II

Appropriate courses could be additional electives counting toward the concentration if so determined by the academic adviser in consultation with the mathematics department chair.

The computing course can be a computer science course at or above the 200-level or a computing course appropriate to the program of study as determined through consultation with the academic adviser and the mathematics department chair.

Outside Coursework

For the purpose of completing a coherent sequence of courses that provide a solid introduction to the discipline all students must partner with a department or program in a discipline that applies statistics or mathematics. In this regard, a minimum of five courses chosen in consultation with the Mathematics Department adviser and the outside department or program is required. A partner department/program will usually be chosen from the College of Engineering, the School of Management, the Division of Social Sciences, or the Division of Natural Sciences. Entering students can declare the intended major in the summer after acceptance to Bucknell, but must consult with the Mathematics Department and formally declare the outside coursework by the end of their third semester. All other students must consult with the Mathematics Department at the point of declaring the major and specify the outside coursework. In either case the Mathematics Department will consult with the partner department or program to ensure that the coursework is appropriate and can be completed.

A sample sequence for the Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematical Sciences major is provided below. It should be noted that each student's sequence will be unique, depending on when the program is started, how many AP or transfer credits are applied, and when the desired courses are offered.

First Year
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
MATH 2011MATH 2021
 1 1
Sophomore
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
MATH 2111MATH 2451
MATH 2161MATH 3031
Computing course1Outside course1
 3 3
Junior
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
MATH 2801MATH 3081
MATH 216
  & MATH 217
2Concentration elective1
Outside course1Outside course1
 4 3
Senior
First SemesterCreditsSecond SemesterCredits
Concentration elective1Concentration elective1
Outside course1Outside course1
 Culminating Experience1
 2 3
Total Credits: 20

Mathematics Minor

A minor in mathematics consists of either:

MATH courses MATH 211 or above (at least one of them at the 300- or 400-level)4
Total Credits4

or

MATH courses MATH 211 or above (at least two of them at the 300- or 400-level)3
Total Credits3

All credits must come from courses taken at Bucknell University.

Mathematics (Statistics) Specific Minor

The minor can be specified as mathematics (statistics), if at least two of the required credits are from among:

MATH 217Statistics II1
MATH 303Probability1
MATH 305Statistical Modeling1
MATH 307Statistical Design of Scientific Studies1
MATH 404Mathematical Statistics1

Mathematics (Applied/Modeling Mathematics) Specific Minor

The minor can be specified as mathematics (applied/modeling mathematics) if at least two of the required credits are from among the courses:

MATH 212Differential Equations1
MATH 222Differential Equations for Engineers.5
MATH 226Probability and Statistics for Engineers.5
MATH 343Numerical Analysis1
MATH 350Methods in Applied Mathematics1
MATH 358Topics in Operations Research1

Courses

MATH 112. Introduction to Mathematical Modeling. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Introduction for the non-specialist to mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena such as voting and networks, using graph theory, probability, and other accessible tools.

MATH 117. Introduction to Mathematical Thought. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3,Other:1.5
An investigation of number, numeration, and operations from the perspective of elementary school teachers and pupils. Open only to B.S. in Education Early Childhood Pre-K to 4 students. Required fieldwork.

MATH 118. Elementary Geometry and Statistics. 1 Credit.

Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Investigation of geometric, probabilistic, and statistical concepts related to Pre-K to 4 mathematics and how children learn and make sense of these concepts. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Prerequisite: MATH 117 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 192. Topics in Calculus. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Elementary calculus and applications taken primarily from economics. Topics include algebraic, exponential, and logarithmic functions, graphs, limits, derivatives and integration. Not open to students who have taken MATH 201.

MATH 201. Calculus I. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:4
An introduction to the calculus of algebraic, trigonometric and transcendental functions. Interpretation, significance and calculations of a derivative. Applications to geometry, biology, physics, economics, and other subjects. Introduction to the definite integral, including the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Not open to students who have taken MATH 192.

MATH 202. Calculus II. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:4
Methods of integration including substitution, integration by parts, numerical approximations, and improper integrals. Series, including Taylor series. Complex numbers, polar coordinates, differential equations, and applications. Prerequisite: MATH 201.

MATH 207. The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools. 1 Credit.

Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:3,Other:.5
Investigation into the components of effective secondary school mathematics instruction, including lesson design/ implementation (curriculum, tasks, discourse, and assessment). Required fieldwork. Prerequisite: EDUC 201 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 209. Mathematical Problem Solving. .5 Credits.

Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable
Mathematical problem solving, with an emphasis on problems and topics that appear in contests such as the Putnam Competition. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

MATH 211. Calculus III. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:4
Calculus of vector-valued functions and functions of several variables. Multiple, line, and surface integrals; applications, and extrema. Green's, Stokes' and Divergence Theorems. Prerequisite: MATH 202.

MATH 212. Differential Equations. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Basic methods of solving ordinary differential equations. Systems of linear differential equations, Laplace transform, applications and selected topics. Prerequisite: MATH 211. Not open to students who have taken MATH 222.

MATH 216. Statistics I. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3,Other:1
Exploratory data analysis, sampling distributions, regression, sampling designs, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, ANOVA. Statistical software is used and applications, including projects, are undertaken. Not open to students who have taken MATH 226 or PSYC 215.

MATH 217. Statistics II. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3,Other:1
Exploratory data analysis, design of experiments and inference emphasizing applications in biology and environmental science. Includes multiple linear regression, analysis of variance, categorical data analysis, nonparametric statistics. Prerequisite: MATH 216 or equivalent.

MATH 222. Differential Equations for Engineers. .5 Credits.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:2
First order differential equations, second order linear equations, higher order linear equations, numerical approximations. Prerequisite: MATH 211. Open only to civil engineering and computer science engineering students. Not open to students who have taken MATH 212.

MATH 226. Probability and Statistics for Engineers. .5 Credits.

Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:2
Descriptive modeling and statistics, sampling and experimental design, discrete and continuous random variables, central limit theorem, and elementary inference. Prerequisite: MATH 202. Open only to engineering students and students in computer science. Not open to students who have taken MATH 216.

MATH 240. Combinatorics and Graph Theory. .5 Credits.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Counting techniques and traversal problems. Does not count toward the major. Students join MATH 241 mid-semester. Corequisite: MATH 280. Only for students seeking secondary certification.

MATH 241. Discrete Structures. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Logic, sets; mathematical induction; relations, functions; combinatorics and graph theory. Does not count toward the mathematics major. Prerequisite: MATH 202.

MATH 245. Linear Algebra. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Linear equations, matrices, vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants, eigenvalues. Prerequisite: MATH 202.

MATH 280. Logic, Sets, and Proofs. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Logic, sets; proof techniques; relations, functions, sequences and convergence; cardinality. Skills and tools for independent reading, problem solving and exploration. Prerequisite: MATH 211 or MATH 245.

MATH 291. Undergraduate Readings. .5-2 Credits.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable
Readings and research in special topics at an intermediate level. Prerequisites: permission of the instructor, adviser, and department chair.

MATH 303. Probability. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Elementary probability, random variables, moments, central limit theorem, conditional expectation, statistical distributions derived from the normal distribution. Probability simulations and applications from various fields. Prerequisite: MATH 211.

MATH 305. Statistical Modeling. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Regression and analysis of (co)variance. Model diagnosis and remediation. Model selection, multicollinearity, logistic regression. R or SAS will be used. Prerequisites: MATH 216 or equivalent, MATH 245, and MATH 303 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 307. Statistical Design of Scientific Studies. 1 Credit.

Offered Spring Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Experiments, observational studies. Completely randomized, block, mixed models, crossed, nested design. Simple random, stratified, cluster sampling. Estimation procedures, sample size calculations. Uses R or SAS. Prerequisite: MATH 217 or MATH 303.

MATH 308. Real Analysis I. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Real numbers and elementary topology of Cartesian spaces, convergence, continuity, differentiation, and history of the development of analysis. Prerequisites: MATH 211, MATH 245, and MATH 280.

MATH 311. Theory of Numbers. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Classical number theory in an algebraic setting. Topics include unique factorization, diophantine equations, and linear and quadratic congruencies. Advanced topics from algebraic or analytic number theory. Prerequisites: MATH 245 and MATH 280, or permission of the instructor.

MATH 319. Topics in Advanced Mathematics. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3; Repeatable
Special topics, to be selected from algebra, analysis, geometry, statistics, applied mathematics, etc.

MATH 320. Abstract Algebra I. 1 Credit.

Offered Both Fall and Spring; Lecture hours:3
Groups and rings; homomorphisms and isomorphism theorems; history of the development of algebra. Additional selected topics. Prerequisites: MATH 245 and MATH 280.

MATH 333. Topology. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Topological spaces, connectedness, compactness, continuity, separation, and countability axioms. Metric, product, function, and uniform spaces. Prerequisites: MATH 211 and MATH 280, or permission of the instructor.

MATH 335. Geometry. 1 Credit.

Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:3
Historical and axiomatic foundations of geometry. Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. Prerequisite: MATH 280 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 343. Numerical Analysis. 1 Credit.

Offered Fall Semester Only; Lecture hours:3,Other:2
Floating point arithmetic, development of computational algorithms and error estimates for root approximation, interpolation and approximation by polynomials, numerical differentiation and integration, cubic splines, least-squares, linear systems, lab component. Prerequisites: MATH 211 and CSCI 203, or permission of the instructor.

MATH 345. Advanced Linear Algebra. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Systems of linear equations, determinants, vector spaces, canonical forms for linear transformations and matrices, bilinear forms, inner product spaces, applications to such other areas as geometry, differential equations, linear programming. Prerequisites: MATH 245 and either MATH 280 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 350. Methods in Applied Mathematics. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Techniques drawn from partial differential equations, transform methods, Fourier and complex analysis, and variational calculus. Prerequisite: MATH 212 or MATH 222 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 358. Topics in Operations Research. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Mathematical and statistical techniques in operations research. Queueing theory. Additional topics may include simulation, forecasting, non-linear programming, inventory models. Methods and applications drawn from various fields. Prerequisite: MATH 303 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 362. Complex Analysis. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Limits, analytic functions, integrals including contour integrals. Cauchy's Integral Theorem, entire functions and singularities. Prerequisites: MATH 211 and MATH 280, or permission of the instructor.

MATH 378. Seminar. .5 Credits.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:2; Repeatable
Seminar based on topics from algebra, analysis, topology, differential equations, statistics, or applied mathematics; topics selected according to demand or interest. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

MATH 391. Reading and Research. .5-2 Credits.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable
Reading and research in various topics for qualified undergraduate students. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

MATH 392. Reading and Research. .5-2 Credits.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable
Reading and research in various topics for qualified undergraduate students. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

MATH 404. Mathematical Statistics. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Point and interval estimation, hypothesis testing, Fisher's likelihood theory, frequentist versus Bayesian approach, computational statistics. Prerequisites: MATH 216 or equivalent and MATH 303 or permission of the instructor.

MATH 409. Real Analysis II. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Continuation of MATH 308. Integration theory and advanced topics in analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 308.

MATH 417. Topics in Mathematics and Statistics. 1 Credit.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Topics in statistics and mathematics. This course is designed for seniors to satisfy the Culminating Experience requirement. Prerequisites: MATH 280 and a 300-level mathematics course or permission of the instructor.

MATH 446. Abstract Algebra II. 1 Credit.

Offered Alternate Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:3
Advanced topics in group theory including solvable groups, field theory and Galois theory. Prerequisite: MATH 320.

MATH 491. Reading and Research. .5-2 Credits.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable
Reading and research in various topics for qualified undergraduates or graduate students at a level appropriate for a Culminating Experience. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor, adviser, and department chair.

MATH 492. Reading and Research. .5-2 Credits.

Offered Either Fall or Spring; Lecture hours:Varies; Repeatable
Reading and research in various topics for qualified undergraduates or graduate students at a level appropriate for a Culminating Experience. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor, adviser, and department chair.

Faculty

Professors: Gregory T. Adams, M. Lynn Breyfogle, Thomas Cassidy (Chair), Ulrich Daepp, George R. Exner, Michael R. Frey, Pamela B. Gorkin, Paul J. McGuire

Associate Professors: Carmen O. Acuña, Peter Brooksbank, Emily Dryden, Sharon A. Garthwaite, James E. Hutton, Peter McNamara, Adam Piggott, Nathan C. Ryan, Linda B. Smolka, Karl Voss

Assistant Professors: Jodi A. Black, KB Boomer, Van T. Cyr, Gabrielle Flynt, Jeffrey Langford

Visiting Assistant Professors: Alex J. Rice, Bonnie B. Smith

Visiting Instructor: Amy Donner

Lecturer: Sandra Rossnock